Matthias Kramer (1640-1729), language teacher and lexicographer in Nuremberg, was one of the most important foreign-language experts of his age. His life and work are described here in detail. The theory and practice of bilingual French-German lexicography are discussed with reference to Kramer's »Dictionnaire roïal« (1712-1715). The volume also contains the first edited collection of Kramer's dictionary prefaces, which document the surprisingly modern perspective of his theories. The chapters of the book are: 1. Reception of Kramer's Work; 2. Biography; 3. Bibliography; 4. Origins of the Dictionary; 5. Macrostructure; 6. Microstructure; 7. Edited Collection of Metalexicographic Prefaces.